follow Terence Hawkes. Shakespeare - Henry V. Matthew Woodcock. Anna Letitia Barbauld. Olivia Murphy. Wordsworth Before Coleridge. Mark J. Wordsworth's Historical Imagination Routledge Revivals. Eighteenth-Century Vitalism. Geoffrey Hill. Alex Pestell. Catherine Belsey. Class and the Canon. William Wordsworth - The Prelude. Tim Milnes.
Romantic Fiat. Wordsworth and the Writing of the Nation. James M. Beyond Romanticism. Stephen Copley. Wordsworth and Coleridge: The Lyrical Ballads. The Cambridge Companion to British Romanticism. Stuart Curran.
Novel Minds. The Vocation of Sara Coleridge. Robin Schofield. Meaning by Shakespeare. Ryan Johnson. Brian Walsh. Romanticism, Medicine and the Natural Supernatural. Gavin Budge. Landscapes of Eternal Return. Roger Ebbatson. The Poetry of Chartism. Mike Sanders. Metaphors of Mind. Brad Pasanek. Coleridge and Contemplation.
Peter Cheyne. Authoring the Self. Scott Hess. Were Early Modern Lives Different?
Andrew Hadfield. Lily Gurton-Wachter. The Music of Verse. Joseph Phelan. Romantic Autobiography in England. Eugene Stelzig. Revolutions in Taste, — Fiona Price. Literary History Writing, April London. Radical Tragedy. Professor Jonathan Dollimore. Victorian Poets. This volume offers an introduction to British literature that challenges the traditional divide between eighteenth-century and Romantic studies. Contributors explore the development of literary genres and modes through a period of rapid change.
They show how literature was shaped by historical factors including the development of the book trade, the rise of literary criticism and the expansion of commercial society and empire. The wide scope of the collection, juxtaposing canonical authors with those now gaining new attention from scholars, makes it essential reading for students of eighteenth-century literature and Romanticism.
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Attention is given to his role as talker, journalist, critic, and philosopher, his politics, his religion, and his reputation in his own times and afterwards. The talker Seamus Perry; 8. Joanna Baillie, Romantic Dramatist. Wordsworth and the natural world. Adam Smyth.
Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. The Cambridge Companion to English Literature 1. The Cambridge Companion to English Literature, — This volume offers an introduction to British literature that challenges the traditional divide between eighteenth-century and Romantic studies. Contrib- utors explore the development of literary genres and modes through a period of rapid change.
They show how literature was shaped by historical factors including the development of the book trade, the rise of literary criticism, and the expansion of commercial society and empire.
The wide scope of the collection, juxta- posing canonical authors with those now gaining new attention from scholars, makes it essential reading for all students of eighteenth-century literature and Romanticism. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. However, the publisher has no responsibility for the websites and can make no guarantee that a site will remain live or that the content is or will remain appropriate.
She is writing a monograph on eighteenth-century British labouring-class writing about nature, landscape, and environment. Her current project is a book-length study of Romantic era collectors. He is currently working on British orientalisms between and By taking the extended period as its range, this Companion helps to plot the relationship between these mid-eighteenth-century forbears and the major canonical Romantics, while also registering the interaction between both categories of poet and broader cultural movements such as the pervasive sensibility vogue.
Yet the theatre remained a key cultural institution throughout these years, and old assumptions that the Stage Licensing Act simply froze cre- ativity for decades have given way to serious investigation of the new direc- tions forced on managers and dramatists by the legislation of As a whole, the period witnessed the talents of playwrights such as Goldsmith and Sheridan, theatre critics of the calibre of Lamb and Hazlitt, and the emer- gence of star actors such as Garrick and Siddons.
In all three genres, of course, important lines of continuity also cross the chronological bounds of this Companion, in ways registered by several contributors. It begins with Pope railing in The Dunciad against the impoverishment of a literary marketplace in which hack xii What was less certain — as Linda Colley has suggested in Britons: Forging the Nation — — was how writers and readers understood their own identities in relation to this emerging power. For all the growing familiarity of the exotic, however, imperial expansion and its consequences still involved widespread anxiety, and even — as in the case of the broad-based abolitionist movement of the period — extensive outright opposition.
Opposition developed around issues of parlia- mentary reform, from the Wilkesite agitations of the s to the popular radical movement of the s and beyond, in ways that begin to look familiar to readers in a democratic society. The wealth being generated from industry, trade and empire was fuelling, among much else, a rapid expansion of the publishing industry, and a middle-class reading audience was coming into its own. This growing audi- ence sustained the development of the novel, fed elite fears about taste and its relationship to the marketplace, and encouraged with the mid-century establishment of the Monthly and Critical reviews an associated prolifera- tion of periodicals that served to mediate and police literary culture to an expanded readership.
Yet this explosion of print culture, and the powerful cultural paradigm of the republic of letters, also encouraged writers from below such as Blake and Clare to lay claim to a public voice on the basis of talent or inspiration alone. Many writers reacted with alarm, in particular, at the emergence of modern urban and industrial culture.
The aim of this Companion is to provide a clear and accessible introduc- tion to these complex cultural trends, and to the literature that sprang from, responded to, and in turn conditioned their emergence. We hope that readers will also experience the volume as an opening out of one of the great periods of literary culture in Britain.
Reading had become a route for the development of the individual into a fully formed member of society. Thus, what people read, as well as how and where they read it, could be seen to indicate much about them. By now, reading shows both social and moral merit. Austen does not tell us what Elizabeth is reading, but it is certainly some form of imaginative literature, and the chances are that it is either a novel or a volume of history or travels.
Moreover, such genres were produced by a growing class of writers who considered them- selves professionals, and vetted by another new type of professional, the literary critic. These emergent professions of writer and critic arose from yet another kind of professionalization: the systematization of the entire process of making and selling books. Together, printers, publishers, book- sellers, writers, readers, and critics transformed literature in the eighteenth 3 The second is the corresponding trans- formation of writers from gentlemen dilettantes into professional authors.
In turn, readers understood themselves as participants in public culture. Who was this audience, and how much did they really read? In the expanding readership of the period, these last categories were of new importance. Readers, writers, reviewers continually aimed at crossover genres. The other newly ascendant audience was women.
As readers, writers, topics and targets in literature, women and female concerns leapt into the forefront of literary culture. As the century wore on, literary ventures aimed at women burgeoned. On the bustling streets of late eighteenth-century British cities, shops and circulating libraries bulged with sentimental novels, monthly peri- odicals containing serialized stories, gift books, poetical miscellanies, and conduct books, all directed at middle-class female readers.
Printing had always been a risky business. Bankruptcies throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries remained high, as inexperienced printers took risks on unknown authors or expensive editions. Within three years, his fortunes had completely reversed. These coalitions of trading booksellers, known as congers, banded together to buy the copyrights for new works, and indeed to buy up all the extant copies of works whose copyrights they held. Although in competition with one another, nonethe- less they also collaborated, so that smaller booksellers were frequently put out of business.
Previously, men and women who sold books from shops were merely retailers. Whereas printers produced fresh works, urban booksellers offered readers books from their ageing stock that were often already out of fashion, while travelling booksellers known as chapmen provided inexpensive, low- grade books with ribbons, songs, and other ephemeral items to country- bound consumers. The advent of congers meant that booksellers increasingly became producers of litera- ture themselves. Moreover, they manoeuvred the courts into preserving the traditional common-law system of enduring copyright pro- tection so that they, and they alone, had the power to issue fresh editions of old as well as new works.
These congers had another profound effect on the literary culture of the eighteenth century. They made literature the pre-eminent subject of sophis- ticated conversation. This resulted partly from their skilful manipulation of the concept of a canon: a roster of renowned authors whose works exem- plify the language and thought of the nation.
Congers and enterprising booksellers, how- ever, made literary exclusivity a matter of novelty rather than time-tested worth: their sales pitch was topicality, not timelessness. Since they could publish old as well as recent texts, however, they could also manipulate the audience to desire both. High literary culture came to include ephemeral 6 Readers, writers, reviewers current works, delights to be savoured while fresh from the press, rather than only weighty and traditional matter, mulled over and meditated upon by cler- ics and historians.
The literary canon became a question of contemporary debate. Eighteenth-century publishing booksellers also used their copyright priv- ileges to attract new audiences and to preserve the reputation and money- making power of the authors whose copyrights they owned. Some of this inventiveness appears in the presentation of books. Early eighteenth-century literature features elaborate printing devices, including fonts ranging from grim Gothic to spidery cursive; random italics; and startling capitals designed to attract even unskilled readers.
Later books use crisp roman numerals on wide swathes of page to tout their classic simplicity. Rather, they facilitated the dissemination of literary works to the widest possible audience while preserving the aura of literature as a high-class commodity. Print promoted print. These were the second generation, at least, of novel-readers, accustomed to the titular lures of novels and their generic medley, and moreover they were surrounded by a competitive, sophisticated literary marketplace.
Since the Restoration, publishers had issued anthologies, miscellanies, and compendia of verse, ephemeral works, jokes, and literary fragments, but these had remained something of a second-class form, a patchwork creation slapped together from left- over poems and pamphlets. In the mid-eighteenth century, however, Robert Dodsley, an enterprising footman who had changed his livery for literature, issued a collection of verse that made contemporary poetry a matter of high moral seriousness.
Entitled A Collection of Poems by Several Hands, the series appeared in six volumes from to , and was revised, contin- ued, and imitated throughout the century. This anthology created a taste for proto-Romantic poetry, and at the same time an audience for it composed of the culturally ambitious and fashionable gentry.
Cambridge Core - History of Ideas and Intellectual History - The Cambridge Companion to Coleridge - edited by Lucy Newlyn. Samuel Taylor Coleridge is one of the most influential, and one of the most enigmatic, of all Romantic figures. This Cambridge Companion does full justice to the.
An alternative, if they could afford it, was to publish by commission: authors would bring their manuscripts to printers and pay for the publication themselves, with the agreement that the printer would distribute copies and take a fee for each that was sold. However, once literature became a fashionable commodity, booksellers took a more direct part in actually creating literature. Now that publishing booksellers 8 Still, the real audience for literary authors was not the bookseller but a tolerant and varied readership: the shifting, increasingly opulent, urban classes, the colonials abroad, and the country gentry and professions in the rural British Isles.
Another way of producing books was by subscription: a contract between selected readers, and an author and a publisher. By this plan, interested readers, attracted by the description of a proposed new work, would provide the means to pay for its publication, and would eventually receive one of the limited number of copies themselves.