Principles of Electromagnetic Waves and Materials

Principles of Electromagnetic Waves and Materials
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http://www.grassrootstoursgrenada.com/images/clorochina-difosfato-e-plaquenil-farmaci.php Magnetron is comparatively inexpensive and it can generate a large power. Magnetron is a type of vacuum tube that has been also used for the household type microwaves. In micro Denshi, we primarily use the MHz band magnetron. We manufacture microwave power application apparatuses that has W to kW outputs. In Figure14, shows the basic structure of microwave power application apparatus.

In here, microwave that is oscillated by the Generator is called the traveling wave or incident wave. On the other hand, microwave that is reflected by the Applicator is called the reflected wave or reflection wave And the microwave power consumed within the Applicator, is same value as reflected wave deducted by the traveling wave. Strictly speaking, micorwave power consumption from EH Tuner to the Applicator. The microwave which is generated by magnetron propagates in waveguide to be emitted from the nozzle.

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Therefore, as shown in Figure 14, operating tests must be done after the connection of microwave devices to the Applicator. Otherwise, it is dangerous. Reflected wave which occurs by rotation of the Turntable and the Stirrer. Isolator can reduce the influence of reflected wave fluctuation.

Without this fluctuation, magnetron can continue stable operation. In other words, Isolator functions to protect magnetron. Must be careful when reflected wave becomes large, there is an increase in error. Micro Denshi's Power Monitor has been devised to show the power accurately, even when magnetron is driven by other power supply. EH-Tuner is recommended for easy adjustment. By adjusting E- or H-tuner, changes the phase and magnitude of microwave reflection at the tuner section It is also adjustable to set the display value of reflected power to zero by adjusting E- or H- tuner.

This means that, by adjusting E- or H- tuner, generates a same magnitude reverse phase wave to counter the reflected wave. And as a result, the reflected wave has been denied. When the reflected power wave value is zero on the display of Power Monitor, power consumption of after tuner to inside applicator is maximized. This condition is called "The matching". Depending on the application, ther are a variety of shapes, such as batch type, conveyor type, waveguide type, etc.

Micro Denshi's applicator has been devised to minimize the reflection caused at the junction of waveguide. Microwave is transmittable when metal pipe with cross section is used. In general, for the microwave heating equipment, 2GHz standard rectangular waveguide of rectangular cross section is used. In contrast, in Figure 14, for example, when there is a stirrer stirrer fan or turntable inside the applicator, depends on the rotation, reflecting position and magnitude differs. Here are some explanation of the matching in this case. For example, when only stirrer is rotaing inside the applicator, according to the rotation, the value of reflected power indicated on display changes greatly.

In this case, adjust EH-tuner to minimize the reflected power on display. Then, the unadjustable reflected power goes to the isolator to be absorbed by the dummy load in it. In Figure 14, describing reflection in orange dotted line, becomes thinner at the EH-Tuner. And it will be absorbed by the dummy load of the Isolator. Figure 14 shows the matching in this case. In addition, when the reflected power is large to pass through Power Monitor, there will be a significant errors.

Electromagnetic Waves

In case of controlling the traveling wave by detecting reflected wave, better to use the dedicated devices to calculate the accurate reflection power. Basics of Microwave. A The microwave power absorbed by the dielectric theoretical formula. B The microwave power absorbed by the dielectric calculation formula fo calculating calories. Company Profile. The MHz is the most popular among ISM frequency bands due to not only being usable in any countries in the world, but also existence of a microwave oscillator tube shown in Figure 2. The relatively inexpensive magnetron Output: W to 10kW that is compact built, light weight, and permanent magnet attached, is also a huge contribution to market expansion of the MHz band.

Figure 2 MHz band Magnetron output 2kW water-cooled type. Figure 5 At too lower frequency of radio wave. Figure 6 At too higher frequency of radio wave. Figure 9: Cmparison of transmission speed microwave is same as light. Figure Microwave heats object internally. Figure Microwave heating is fast.

Figure Selected heating. The same applies to the reflected beam, which is produced by the coherent superposition of the waves scattered by the individual metamolecules in the backward direction. This is in stark contrast to conventional bulk optical components e. Huygens metasurfaces are expected to have major implications for integrated and transformation optics, as they allow one to control the amplitude and phase of the scattering independently, and hence generate truly arbitrary field patterns for given illumination.

Consequently, all bi-layered chiral metamaterials considered in Sect. It is attributed to the chirality that is drawn extrinsically from the experimental arrangement that includes not only molecules or metamolecules , which must be oriented and can be structurally achiral , but also the wave propagation direction. Optical activity due to extrinsic chirality. Optical activity is controlled by the projections of p and m onto the plane perpendicular to the incident wavevector k green and red dashed arrows correspondingly.

The strongest optical activity of opposite sign occurs if these projections are either d parallel or e antiparallel. No effect can be observed at oblique incidence if the metamolecules possess twofold rotational symmetry or if the line of their mirror symmetry is parallel to the plane of incidence. The magnitude of the polarization rotation and circular dichroism is controlled by the angle of incidence.

Similar to conventional optical activity, its extrinsic counterpart results from the simultaneous presence of electric and magnetic responses in the metamolecules. When the split is parallel to the plane of incidence the line of mirror symmetry is orthogonal to the plane of incidence , the projections of m and p become collinear and scatter electromagnetic waves with orthogonal polarizations, so that the polarization of the resulting transmitted wave exhibits maximal rotation.

Clearly, by varying the angle of incidence, one changes the difference between the magnitudes of the dipole projections, and hence controls their relative contributions to the polarization state of the transmitted wave. Also, it can be seen that for opposite angles of incidence, the mutual phase difference between the projections of m and p reverses, which directly affects the sign of optical activity see Fig.

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When the split is perpendicular to the plane of incidence the line of mirror symmetry is parallel to the plane of incidence , the projections of m and p become orthogonal to each other Fig. In this case, the electromagnetic waves scattered by the projections have the same polarizations, and so the polarization state of the transmitted wave cannot change. Finally, at normal incidence, the projection of m is zero, which makes the absence of optical activity trivial Fig.

Importantly, extrinsic optical activity is exhibited by truly planar metamaterials, which are typically much easier to fabricate than the bi-layered stacks. The scalability of the metamaterial designs and inherent tunability of the phenomenon, the magnitude and sign of which can be continuously controlled by tilting the metasurface with respect to the incident beam, enables the exploitation of extrinsic optical activity in polarization control applications both in microwave and photonic devices.

Examples of the latter may include compact and efficient polarization rotators, circular polarizers, and polarization modulators, as well as vibration sensors. In some ways, it resembles the famous nonreciprocity of the Faraday effect in magnetized media but requires no magnetic field for its observation and is fully compliant with the Lorentz reciprocity principle.

Examples of planar chiral metamaterial patterns featuring clockwise and counter-clockwise twists. The polarization conversion term t x y cannot be eliminated by the choice of appropriate coordinate systems only in the presence of dissipation. It also follows form Manifestations of polarization effects and corresponding polarization eigenstates in conventional chiral media, Faraday media, and planar chiral media.

Vectors H and W denote magnetization and planar chiral twist, respectively. This invites the application of planar chiral metamaterials as novel polarization sensitive components of electromagnetic devices, such as polarization and direction sensitive beam splitters, circulators, and sensor components.

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Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download chapter PDF. The exotic and often dramatic physics exhibited by the metamaterials is in many cases underpinned by the resonant response of their metamolecules. An electromagnetic wave incident onto the metamaterial induces oscillating electrical currents j in the conducting elements of each metamolecule, which then scatter i. Radiation scattered backward is perceived as the metamaterial reflection, while radiation scattered forward contributes to the transmission by adding coherently to the incident wave.

Open image in new window. Some examples of the metallic patterns commonly exploited in the metamaterial research are shown in Fig. Consequently, the metamolecules do not operate in the quasi-static regime and should be regarded as miniature transmission lines with distributed inductance and capacitance. Perhaps the first ever metamaterial was constructed and studied by Bose more than years ago.

The metamaterial approach allows for the mimicking of orbital currents with loops of conduction currents that are magnetically induced in metamolecules via Faraday induction Fig. Although metamolecules are much larger than natural atoms and molecules, they are still smaller than the wavelength of light and thus on the macroscopic scale i. Since each metamolecule operates as an LC -circuit, the induced conduction currents will be resonantly amplified, yielding artificial magnetic response that is several orders of magnitude stronger than found in natural materials.

As in the case of magnetic metamolecules, the designs of negative-index metamolecules operating at optical frequencies were substantially modified to take into account the increasing kinetic inductance of electrons in metals and to respect the limitations of nanofabrication techniques existing at that time. Negative refraction was the most peculiar to say the least effect anticipated in double-negative media. The experimental data indicated that the beam was deflected by the metamaterial prism to negative angles compared to the reference case in the frequency range In short, any object that cannot be superimposed with its mirror image is chiral.

Chirality is the most fundamental type of asymmetry, which in matter leads to the effect of optical activity. In naturally available chiral media, optical activity is relatively weak and, therefore, slabs with the thickness of hundreds of wavelengths must be used to achieve measurable rotation. The latter is particularly appealing for applications in the terahertz frequency range and below where the effect is virtually absent. This illustrates that chiral metamaterials exhibit simultaneously electric and magnetic responses, which appear to be mixed such that magnetic dipole moments are induced in the split rings by the electric component of light via cut wires , and vice versa.

The shell cloak is the most remarkable example of space distortion; it can steer light around an object making the latter invisible, when imitated in the physical space using metamaterials. The experiments were conducted in the microwave part of the spectrum, where the fabrication of bulk metamaterial samples and their characterization was generally easier to accomplish. Also, additional steps were taken to reduce the set of required material parameters; however, this was at the expense of nonzero reflectance.

The metamaterial shell was formed by 10 concentric cylindrical layers of 3. The cloak was designed to operate at 8. As the waves propagate through the metamaterial shell, the center section of the wavefront starts to slow down when it approaches the core, exhibiting wavelength compression. The wavefront splits to pass around the core and rejoins on the opposite side. Upon exiting the shell, the wavefronts are seen to match those propagating alongside in the empty space.

In this case, given the restricted geometry of the cloak, it becomes possible to minimize the anisotropy of the transformed material parameters, while the required values of the refractive index turn out to be merely greater than unity. Hyperbolic metamaterials are perhaps the only class of artificial electromagnetic media that does not rely on resonant interaction with the incident radiation. In other words, depending on the direction of light propagation and polarization such metamaterials behave either as metals or as dielectrics i. An example of such a lens designed to operate in the ultraviolet UV spectrum is shown in Fig.

They are controlled by the shape and size of the patches also regarded as metamolecules , and the dielectric permittivity of the immediate surroundings. Consequently, planar metamaterials share most of the design features of their bulk counterparts Fig.

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In contrast to the case of regular metallic mirrors Fig. Instead, the reversal will occur for the H -field component Fig. The resonant frequencies of HIS are typically lower than the resonant frequencies of the constituent FSS due to the capacitive coupling of the latter with the metal screen. The interest in optical magnetic mirrors is driven by applications in surface-enhanced spectroscopy, and the opportunity to increase the efficiency of optical antennas and nanoemitters, and engineer compact optical cavities.

The resulting nanostructured mirror exhibited high-impedance resonances in the yellow and red spectral bands. An absorbing magnetic mirror may, therefore, be regarded as an extremely compact electromagnetic cavity, where light bounces back and forth effectively being trapped between the constituent FSS and metal screen while passing through the lossy dielectric many times until it is completely absorbed. At high-impedance resonance, these lines are seen to wind around the metallic fabric of the metamaterial, going in and out of the dielectric spacer where they eventually terminate Fig.

An example of the designer metasurface exhibiting negative refraction and reflection in the IR is presented in Fig. The metasurfaces were based on regular arrays of achiral asymmetrically split-ring metamolecules Fig. Optical activity of an extrinsically chiral metasurface has the following key features: 1. No effect can be observed at normal incidence. Opposite angles of incidence yield the effects of opposite signs. It points along the normal to the plane of the pattern, and its direction is governed by the corkscrew law: if the screw rotates in the direction of the structural twist, then it moves along the twist vector.

Correspondingly, if W points along the direction of observation, the pattern is perceived as being twisted clockwise and, conversely, if W points toward the observer, the pattern is twisted counter-clockwise Fig. The transmission asymmetry exhibited by planar chiral metamaterials is different from that of the Faraday effect in magnetized media. Indeed, in the case of the Faraday effect, the asymmetry applies to the transmission amplitude and phase of an incident circularly polarized wave itself, whereas planar chiral metamaterials, due to their anisotropy, partially convert the incident wave into one of the opposite handedness, and it is the efficiency of this conversion that is asymmetric with respect to the direction of propagation.

The fundamental novelty of the asymmetric transmission effect may also be appreciated by comparing the polarization eigenstates i. The eigenstates of planar chiral metamaterials are also different from those of conventionally chiral media and chiral metamaterials exhibiting optical activity. The eigenstates of the latter are completely symmetric with respect to the propagation direction, whereas the eigenstates of planar chiral metamaterials reverse their handedness Fig.

Shelby, D. Smith, S. Browning, S. Ziolkowski: EPJ Appl. Kaelberer, V. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, D. Tsai, N. Wiltshire, J. Pendry, I. Young, D. Larkman, D. Gilderdale, J. Kurter, J.

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To decline or learn more, visit our Cookies page. EM radiation or photon, which is a quantum of light carries momentum; this momentum is transferred to an object when the radiation is absorbed or reflected. Furthermore, different materials have their atoms more closely packed and thus the amount of distance between atoms is less. The electron interacts with charges in the material as it penetrates. Many of the characteristics of the various types of electromagnetic waves are related to their frequencies and wavelengths, as we shall see. The effects are typically minute, but are noticeable at sufficiently high speeds.

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Kafesaki, C. Soukoulis, E. Economou: Opt. Express 2 , CrossRef Google Scholar. Lindman: Ann. Tinoco, M. Freeman: J. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. Rill, M. The Transmission Line Matrix TLM method [6]-[11] was rarely used for modeling this kind of phenomena, the first approach modeling quantum properties of two energy level atomic systems were proposed in [8]. In order to explore this field and to contribute to the development of a novel numerical model using the Time-Domain TLM method with the symmetrical condensed node SCN , we have introduced novel voltage sources to this node [9]-[11] by including Pauli Exclusion Principle and dynamic pumping.

This new model describes the space-time evolution of electrons populations' densities in each energy level and gives the frequency evolution of the gain in the atomic system of four-level two-electron. Furthermore, the scattering matrix characterizing the SCN with the new voltage sources is provided and the simulation's results are compared to those of the literature or obtained by the theoretical solutions.

The propagation of EM waves in atomic systems induces a time depending dipolar moment in the different atoms [1]. This shows the importance of the dipolar radiation theory which allows to give a simple interpretation of several phenomena related with EM waves interactions with material in the classical model. In addition to Maxwell's equations which govern EM wave propagation in this medium, it is necessary to take into account the equations of the oscillations due to wave and material interactions, and also the energy level population rate equations, which allow to predict the number of electrons in each energy level, coupled with Pauli Exclusion Principle.

In an atom having many electrons, we must take into account Pauli Exclusion Principle which forbids two electrons to have the same quantum state. This principle allows to determine electron distributions in the different energy levels. In a four-level two-electron atomic system, submitted to a dynamic pumping, this principle appears through the rate equations describing electrons populations' densities in each energy level by introducing a factor 1-N , where N is the normalized density of the population in the lower energy level.

In this case, the modified rate equations are given by [4]:. In order to implement a numerical model for the simulation of the interaction of EM wave with fourenergy level two-electron atomic systems using the TLM method with the SCN and novel voltage sources, we combine the equations 1 and 2 with those of Maxwell:. Thus, the equations 4 become:. The obtained matrix models EM wave propagation in an atomic system taking into account the physical effects related with the medium polarization with the voltage sources V sx , V sx , V sx which are expressed as follows:.

Its expressions are deduced from the time discretization of equations 1 :. The TLM method with voltage sources algorithm implementation is based on a recursive computation of i, j, k and i, j, k given by the equation 9. Local scattered voltage pulses V r at the SCN are obtained from the scattering matrix expressed in 7.

Finally, we establish connections between nodes along the spatial TLM lattice. The proposed model was used to simulate the effect of an incident EM wave on a four-level twoelectron atomic system. This allows to predict the electrons dynamic between energy levels by the modified rate equations, by introducing Pauli Exclusion Principle and pumping dynamic as well as the incident signal amplification by this system.

The air-system interface is excited first with a sine wave of amplitude 2. In order to prove the efficiency of the proposed model, we present in Fig. In the beginning of the dynamic pumping, the electrons move from E 1 to E 0 , then to E 3 and finally to E 2. The population in level E 1 starts to decrease and the population in level E 2 starts to increase.

The time evolution, of the electrons population densities in the different energy levels, is shown in Fig.