http://data.flinttworks.kayak.rocks/the-watergirl-book-6-the-hot.php Advances in technology have resulted in products that are more concentrated, products that combine two functions in one, products with refill packages and packages that use recycled materials. Concentrated products need less energy to manufacture and transport, and require less packaging. Multifunctional products eliminate the need for separate packages. Refill packages allow consumers to reuse primary packages many times, decreasing the amount of packaging used and the volume of trash generated. Plastic and paperboard that would otherwise be thrown away become usable materials through recycling.
Through education and community programs, the soap and detergent industry helps consumers learn how to reduce waste and how best to dispose of it. Consumers are reminded that the environmentally wise way of handling any household cleaning product is to buy only the amount that can be used; to use it all up or give it away; and, if it must be disposed, to dispose of it properly. As a rule of thumb, products designed for use with water should be disposed of by pouring down the drain; solid products such as scouring pads should be put into the trash.
A promising method under development for improving the environmental quality of a product is life cycle assessment LCA.
One advantage of LCA is that it can determine whether reducing an environmental impact in one area, such as manufacturing, shifts the impact to another, such as disposal. LCA also helps to identify where environmental improvement efforts should be focused. The industry maintains this commitment without compromising product performance, convenience or cost-effectiveness. Soaps and detergents are essential to personal and public health. Through their ability to loosen and remove soil from a surface, they contribute to good personal hygiene; reduce the presence of germs that cause infectious diseases; extend the useful life of clothes, tableware, linens, surfaces and furnishings; and make our homes and workplaces more pleasant.
Soaps and detergents found in the home can be grouped into four general categories: personal cleansing, laundry, dishwashing and household cleaning. Within each category are different product types formulated with ingredients selected to perform a broad cleaning function as well as to deliver properties specific to that product. Knowing the different products and their ingredients helps you select the right product for the cleaning job. Personal Cleansing Products include bar soaps, gels, liquid soaps and heavy duty hand cleaners.
These products get their cleaning action from soap, other surfactants or a combination of the two. Laundry Detergents and Laundry Aids are available as liquids, powders, gels, sticks, sprays, pumps, sheets and bars. They are formulated to meet a variety of soil and stain removal, bleaching, fabric softening and conditioning, and disinfectant needs under varying water, temperature and use conditions. Dishwashing Products include detergents for hand and machine dishwashing as well as some specialty products. They are available as liquids, gels, powders and solids.
Household Cleaners are available as liquids, gels, powders, solids, sheets and pads for use on painted, plastic, metal, porcelain, glass and other surfaces, and on washable floor coverings. Because no single product can provide optimum performance on all surfaces and soils, a broad range of products has been formulated to clean efficiently and easily. While all-purpose cleaners are intended for more general use, others work best under highly specialized conditions.
Surfactants and builders are the major components of cleaning products. Surfactants, also called surface active agents, are organic chemicals that change the properties of water see Chemistry. By lowering the surface tension of water, surfactants enable the cleaning solution to wet a surface for example, clothes, dishes, countertops more quickly, so soil can be readily loosened and removed usually with the aid of mechanical action. Surfactants also emulsify oily soils and keep them dispersed and suspended so they do not settle back on the surface. To accomplish their intended jobs effectively, many cleaning products include two or more surfactants.
Builders enhance or maintain the cleaning efficiency of the surfactant. The primary function of builders is to reduce water hardness. This is done either by sequestration or chelation holding hardness minerals in solution , by precipitation forming an insoluble substance , or by ion exchange trading electrically charged particles. Complex phosphates and sodium citrate are common sequestering builders. Sodium carbonate and sodium silicate are precipitating builders. Sodium aluminosilicate zeolite is an ion exchange builder. Builders can also supply and maintain alkalinity, which assists cleaning, especially of acid soils; help keep removed soil from redepositing during washing; and emulsify oily and greasy soils.
Ingredient Key: The following key indicates the product category in which an ingredient may be used. The key letters appear below each ingredient. Soap and detergent manufacturing consists of a broad range of processing and packaging operations. The size and complexity of these operations vary from small plants employing a few people to those with several hundred workers. Products range from large-volume types like laundry detergents that are used on a regular basis to lower-volume specialties for less frequent cleaning needs.
Cleaning products come in three principal forms: bars, powders and liquids. Some liquid products are so viscous that they are gels. The first step in manufacturing all three forms is the selection of raw materials. Raw materials are chosen according to many criteria, including their human and environmental safety, cost, compatibility with other ingredients, and the form and performance characteristics of the finished product. While actual production processes may vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, there are steps which are common to all products of a similar form.
Traditional bar soaps are made from fats and oils or their fatty acids which are reacted with inorganic water-soluble bases. The main sources of fats are beef and mutton tallow, while palm, coconut and palm kernel oils are the principal oils used in soap-making. The raw materials may be pre-treated to remove impurities and to achieve the colour, odour and performance features desired in the finished bar. The chemical processes for making soap, like saponification of fats and oils and neutralization of fatty acids, are described in the Chemistry section.
Soap was made by the batch kettle boiling method until shortly after World War II, when continuous processes were developed. Continuous processes are preferred today because of their flexibility, speed and economics. Both continuous and batch processes produce soap in liquid form, called neat soap, and a valuable by-product, glycerine 1.
Detergency of Specialty Surfactants. Surfactant Science Series. Volume 98 Edited by Floyd E. Friedli (Goldschmidt Chemical Corp., Dublin, OH). Detergency of Specialty Surfactants. Surfactant Science Series. Volume 98 Edited by Floyd E. Friedli (Goldschmidt Chemical Corp., Dublin, OH). Marcel Dekker.
The glycerine is recovered by chemical treatment, followed by evaporation and refining. Refined glycerine is an important industrial material used in foods, cosmetics, drugs and many other products. The next processing step after saponification or neutralization is drying. Vacuum spray drying is used to convert the neat soap into dry soap pellets 2.
The moisture content of the pellets will vary depending on the desired properties of the soap bar. In the final processing step, the dry soap pellets pass through a bar soap finishing line. The first unit in the line is a mixer, called an amalgamator, in which the soap pellets are blended together with fragrance, colourants and all other ingredients 3.
The mixture is then homogenized and refined through rolling mills and refining plodders to achieve thorough blending and a uniform texture 4. Finally, the mixture is continuously extruded from the plodder, cut into bar-size units and stamped into its final shape in a soap press 5. The processing methods for manufacturing the synthetic base materials for these bars are very different from those used in traditional soap-making. However, with some minor modifications, the finishing line equipment is the same.
Powder detergents are produced by spray drying, agglomeration, dry mixing or combinations of these methods. In the spray drying process, dry and liquid ingredients are first combined into a slurry, or thick suspension, in a tank called a crutcher 1. The slurry is heated and then pumped to the top of a tower where it is sprayed through nozzles under high pressure to produce small droplets. The droplets fall through a current of hot air, forming hollow granules as they dry 2. The dried granules are collected from the bottom of the spray tower where they are screened to achieve a relatively uniform size 3.
After the granules have been cooled, heat sensitive ingredients that are not compatible with the spray drying temperatures such as bleach, enzymes and fragrance are added 4.
Traditional spray drying produces relatively low density powders. New technology has enabled the soap and detergent industry to reduce the air inside the granules during spray drying to achieve higher densities. The higher density powders can be packed in much smaller packages than were needed previously. Agglomeration, which leads to higher density powders, consists of blending dry raw materials with liquid ingredients.
Helped by the presence of a liquid binder, rolling or shear mixing causes the ingredients to collide and adhere to each other, forming larger particles. Dry mixing or dry blending is used to blend dry raw materials.
Small quantities of liquids may also be added. Both batch and continuous blending processes are used to manufacture liquid and gel cleaning products. Stabilizers may be added during manufacturing to ensure the uniformity and stability of the finished product. In a typical continuous process, dry and liquid ingredients are added and blended to a uniform mixture using in-line or static mixers. Recently, more concentrated liquid products have been introduced.
One method of producing these products uses new high-energy mixing processes in combination with stabilizing agents. The final step in the manufacture of soaps and detergents is packaging. Bar soaps are either wrapped or cartoned in single packs or multipacks. Detergents, including household cleaners, are packaged in cartons, bottles, pouches, bags or cans. The selection of packaging materials and containers involves considerations of product compatibility and stability, cost, package safety, solid waste impact, shelf appeal and ease of use.
Information about Soaps and Detergents Cleaning products play an essential role in our daily lives. By safely and effectively removing soils, germs and other contaminants, they help us to stay healthy, care for our homes and possessions, and make our surroundings more pleasant. Fats and Oils The fats and oils used in soap-making come from animal or plant sources. They are weak acids composed of two parts: A carboxylic acid group consisting of one hydrogen H atom, two oxygen O atoms, and one carbon C atom, plus a hydrocarbon chain attached to the carboxylic acid group.
Alkali An alkali is a soluble salt of an alkali metal like sodium or potassium. How Soaps are Made Saponification of fats and oils is the most widely used soap-making process.
How Water Hardness Affects Cleaning Action Although soap is a good cleaning agent, its effectiveness is reduced when used in hard water. Petrochemicals and Oleochemicals Like the fatty acids used in soap-making, both petroleum and fats and oils contain hydrocarbon chains that are repelled by water but attracted to oil and grease in soils.
Other Chemicals Chemicals, such as sulphur trioxide, sulphuric acid and ethylene oxide, are used to produce the water-loving end of the surfactant molecule. Alkalis As in soap-making, an alkali is used to make detergent surfactants. History The origins of personal cleanliness date back to prehistoric times. They involve: assembling existing data on toxicity and exposure; determining where new information is needed and, if necessary, carrying out appropriate studies; and determining whether predicted exposure levels are below levels that cause significant toxic effects.
Improving Environmental Quality The soap and detergent industry is committed to understanding the impact of its products and packages on the environment. Products and Ingredients Soaps and detergents are essential to personal and public health. Products Personal Cleansing Products include bar soaps, gels, liquid soaps and heavy duty hand cleaners. Bar soaps or gels are formulated for cleaning the hands, face and body. Liquid soaps are formulated for cleaning the hands or body, and feature skin conditioners.
Some contain antimicrobial agents that kill or inhibit bacteria that can cause odour or disease. Heavy duty hand cleaners are available as bars, liquids, powders and pastes.
Formulated for removing stubborn, greasy dirt, they may include an abrasive. Laundry detergents are either general purpose or light duty. General purpose detergents are suitable for all washable fabrics. Liquids work best on oily soils and for pre-treating soils and stains. Powders are especially effective in lifting out clay and ground-in dirt. Light duty detergents are used for hand or machine washing lightly soiled items and delicate fabrics. Laundry aids contribute to the effectiveness of laundry detergents and provide special functions.
Bleaches chlorine and oxygen whiten and brighten fabrics and help remove stubborn stains. They convert soils into colourless, soluble particles that can be removed by detergents and carried away in the wash water. Liquid chlorine bleach usually in a sodium hypochlorite solution can also disinfect and deodorize fabrics.
Oxygen colour-safe bleach is gentler and works safely on almost all washable fabrics. Bluings contain a blue dye or pigment taken up by fabrics in the wash or rinse. Bluing absorbs the yellow part of the light spectrum, counteracting the natural yellowing of many fabrics. Boosters enhance the soil and stain removal, brightening, buffering and water softening performance of detergents.
They are used in the wash in addition to the detergent. Enzyme pre-soaks are used for soaking items before washing to remove difficult stains and soils. When added to the wash water, they increase cleaning power. Fabric softeners, added to the final rinse or dryer, make fabrics softer and fluffier; decrease static cling, wrinkling and drying time; impart a pleasing fragrance and make ironing easier. Prewash soil and stain removers are used to pre-treat heavily soiled and stained garments, especially those made from synthetic fibres.
Starches, fabric finishes and sizings, used in the final rinse or after drying, give body to fabrics, make them more soil-resistant and make ironing easier. Water softeners, added to the wash or rinse, inactivate hard water minerals. Since detergents are more effective in soft water, these products increase cleaning power. Hand dishwashing detergents remove food soils, hold soil in suspension and provide long-lasting suds that indicate how much cleaning power is left in the wash water.
Automatic dishwasher detergents, in addition to removing food soils and holding them in suspension, tie up hardness minerals, emulsify grease and oil, suppress foam caused by protein soil and help water sheet off dish surfaces. They produce little or no suds that would interfere with the washing action of the machine. Rinse agents are used in addition to the automatic dishwasher detergent to lower surface tension, thus improving draining of the water from dishes and utensils.
Better draining minimizes spotting and filming and enhances drying. Film removers remove build-up of hard water film and cloudiness from dishes and the interior of the dishwasher. They are used instead of an automatic dishwasher detergent in a separate cycle or together with the detergent. They are used when no dishes or other dishwasher products are present.
All-purpose cleaners penetrate and loosen soil, soften water and prevent soil from redepositing on the cleaned surface. Some also disinfect. Abrasive cleansers remove heavy accumulations of soil often found in small areas. The abrasive action is provided by small mineral or metal particles, fine steel wool, copper or nylon particles. Specialty cleaners are designed for the soil conditions found on specific surfaces, such as glass, tile, metal, ovens, carpets and upholstery, toilet bowls and in drains.
Glass cleaners loosen and dissolve oily soils found on glass, and dry quickly without streaking. Glass and multi-surface cleaners remove soils from a variety of smooth surfaces. They shine surfaces without streaking. Some also treat surfaces to retard soiling; some also disinfect. Metal cleaners remove soils and polish metalware. Tarnish, the oxidation of metal, is the principal soil found on metalware. Some products also protect cleaned metalware against rapid retarnishing. Oven cleaners remove burned-on grease and other food soils from oven walls.
These cleaners are thick so the product will cling to vertical oven surfaces. Rug shampoos and upholstery cleaners dissolve oily and greasy soils and hold them in suspension for removal. Some also treat surfaces to repel soil. Toilet bowl cleaners prevent or remove stains caused by hard water and rust deposits, and maintain a clean and pleasant-smelling bowl.
Some products also disinfect. Drain openers unclog kitchen and bathroom drains. They work by producing heat to melt fats, breaking them down into simpler substances that can be rinsed away, or by oxidizing hair and other materials. Some use bacteria to prevent grease build-up which leads to drain clogging. Surfactants Surfactants, also called surface active agents, are organic chemicals that change the properties of water see Chemistry. Surfactants are generally classified by their ionic electrical charge properties in water.
Anionic surfactants are used in laundry and hand dishwashing detergents; household cleaners; and personal cleansing products. They ionize are converted to electrically charged particles in solution, carry a negative charge, have excellent cleaning properties and generally are high sudsing. Linear alkylbenzene sulphonate, alcohol ethoxysulphates, alkyl sulphates and soap are the most common anionic surfactants.
Non-ionic surfactants are low sudsing and are typically used in laundry and automatic dishwasher detergents and rinse aids. Because they do not ionize in solution and thus have no electrical charge, they are resistant to water hardness and clean well on most soils. The most widely used are alcohol ethoxylates. Cationic surfactants are used in fabric softeners and in fabric-softening laundry detergents. They ionize in solution and have a positive charge. Quaternary ammonium compounds are the principal cationics.
Amphoteric surfactants are used in personal cleansing and household cleaning products for their mildness, sudsing and stability. They have the ability to be anionic negatively charged , cationic positively charged or non-ionic no charge in solution, depending on the pH acidity or alkalinity of the water. Imidazolines and betaines are the major amphoterics. Builders Builders enhance or maintain the cleaning efficiency of the surfactant. Ingredients Ingredient Key: The following key indicates the product category in which an ingredient may be used. Therefore, detergents are more effective when they are alkaline.
Sodium perborate Sodium percarbonate colourants PC, L, D, HC Provide special identity to product Provide bluing action Pigments or dyes Corrosion inhibitors L, D Protect metal machine parts and finishes, china patterns and metal utensils Sodium silicate Enzymes L, D, HC Proteins classified by the type of soil they break down to simpler forms for removal by detergent Cellulase reduces pilling and greying of fabrics containing cotton and helps remove particulate soils.
Amylase starch soils Lipase fatty and oily soils Protease protein soils Cellulase Fabric softening agents L Impart softness and control static electricity in fabrics Quaternary ammonium compounds Fluorescent whitening agents L Attach to fabrics to create a whitening or brightening effect when exposed to daylight Also called optical brighteners. Cleaning products play an essential role in our daily lives. Neutralize or adjust alkalinity of other ingredients Some specialty cleaners need extra acidity to remove mineral build-up.
Acetic acid Citric acid Hydrochloric acid Phosphoric acid Sulphuric acid. Neutralize or adjust acidity of other ingredients Make surfactants and builders more efficient Increase alkalinityAlkalinity is useful in removing acidic, fatty and oily soils. Ammonium hydroxide Ethanolamines Sodium carbonate Sodium hydroxide Sodium silicate. Pine oil Quaternary ammonium compounds Sodium hypochlorite Triclocarban Triclosan. Carboxymethyl cellulose Polycarbonates Polyethylene glycol Sodium silicate. In some products, may be combined with bleach activator for better performance in lower water temperatures.
Proteins classified by the type of soil they break down to simpler forms for removal by detergent Cellulase reduces pilling and greying of fabrics containing cotton and helps remove particulate soils. Amylase starch soils Lipase fatty and oily soils Protease protein soils Cellulase. Attach to fabrics to create a whitening or brightening effect when exposed to daylight Also called optical brighteners.
Mask base odour of ingredients and package Cover odours of soil Provide special identity to product Provide pleasant odour to clothes and rooms. Prevent liquid products from separating into layers Ensure product homogeneity. In few motivations, in each download Probability and Random Processes, Third Edition of protection, there contend sources and these pages know Thus prehistoric; as a page, a use set in a search can make listed unusually of a request taken in another punishment.
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