mail.botanix.co.il/ces-plantes-qui-crivent-lhistoire.php The following articles are merged in Scholar. Their combined citations are counted only for the first article. Merged citations.
This "Cited by" count includes citations to the following articles in Scholar. Add co-authors Co-authors. Upload PDF. Follow this author. New articles by this author. New citations to this author. New articles related to this author's research. A recent example of this is the Budget Control Act of The purpose of that legislation is primarily to increase the U. One provision of this new law that affects U. Building a resilient community requires thoughtful and strategic long-term investments in multiple aspects of the physical and social fabric of communities that contribute to resilience.
Of course, disaster recovery is an integral part of that process because the ability of communities to recover after a disaster, and the way that they recover, is closely tied to becoming more resilient to subsequent trauma. Therefore, the federal commitment to assist communities in a timely fashion is central to the long-term resilience of communities.
If resources are delayed or curtailed during the critical recovery phase of a disaster, it is possible that states, local communities, businesses, and neighborhoods may be unable to rebuild in a resilient way or not at all and even greater costs will result over the long-term. Recognizing that community resilience is advanced by a variety of policies at the federal, state, and local levels, combined with corporate policies and practices, it is important to ask what policies might improve resilience.
What policies are absent and badly needed? What new policies should be adopted at each level of government to continue the improvement in the resilience of U. Federal policies to strengthen the resilience of communities may be broad or narrow, short term or long term. Because resilience grows over the long term through the application of principles and policies that guide local decisions, the most fruitful policies will be those that acknowledge the broad, long-term needs of communities. Strong communication and coordination among agencies and stakeholders will help ensure effective actions.
The nature of resilience requires some flexibility and adaptability because the patterns of risk, development, and culture vary so widely among communities see also Chapters 3 and 5. Consideration of this need for flexibility is important for policymakers pursuing mechanisms to enhance the resilience of communities.
The fluid and progressive nature of seeking a resilient community does not lend itself to laws or policies mandating resilience as a perfect condition of a community. Any federal, state, or local policies that attempt to mandate resilience would imply that resilience is a perfectly definable condition, which it is not. Community resilience is highly desirable, but broadly complex, and would be extremely difficult to codify in a single comprehensive law.
Rather, governments at all levels have to formulate their own visions of resilience and take the steps in all of their processes to advance resilience through all of its components, forms, and functions, and seek to infuse the principles of resilience into all routine functions of the government. Some ways in which this might be done is the topic of the next chapter. Currently, gaps in policies and programs exist among federal agencies for all parts of the resilience process—including disaster preparedness, response, recovery, mitigation, and adaptation, as well as research, planning, and community assistance.
Although some of these gaps are the result of the legislative authorization within which agencies are directed to operate, the roles. The roles and responsibilities in the federal government for long-term recovery and improvement of resilience constitute a particularly significant policy gap despite some recent legislation and initiatives.
Implementation of PPD-8 should help address this gap. At the state and local levels, many jurisdictions have made excellent progress in taking both a long and broad view of community resilience, and these communities can be used as models. However, many local communities find themselves torn among competing priorities, and the advancement of long-term community resilience is often undermined by the need or desire to address an urgent condition or opportunity in the community. Clearly, policies and processes to improve national resilience at all levels of government will improve as the benefits of resilience are realized and the efforts to improve resilience are integrated across jurisdictions.
Leaders at the local, state, and federal level are increasingly aware of community resilience and how it might be advanced through a variety of decisions and processes. Although many of those critical decisions and processes to improve resilience occur at the state and local levels, the federal government plays a central role in providing guidance for policy and program development to assist local communities in their pursuit of greater resilience.
Development of new policies can be informed by an awareness of resilience, how it can be promoted through decisions and processes, and how resilience can be unintentionally eroded through poorly informed decisions. Three significant findings from the assessment of the policy landscape of resilience are:. Community resilience will grow as the knowledge, experience, and understanding of these roles and responsibilities grow among decision makers at all levels of government. Several of the critical processes, such as land-use planning and building code enforcement, are the responsibility of local groups or governments.
The federal policy role is primarily to ensure that resilience policies are nationally consistent and to provide information and best practices for. Consideration of potential unintended consequences of a new policy with respect to disaster resilience is also important.
Recent work on homeland security and disaster reduction are good beginnings, but the current suite of policies, practices, and decisions affecting resilience are conducted on an ad hoc basis with little formal communication, coordination, or collaboration. In fact, some policies, decisions, and practices actually erode resilience. Implementation of PPD-8 will address some of these consistency and coordination issues. Recommendation: All federal agencies should ensure they are promoting and coordinating national resilience in their programs and policies.
A resilience policy review and self-assessment within agencies and strong communication among agencies are keys to achieving this kind of coordination. Finally, each federal agency should evaluate its interactions with state and local governments and with the public to evaluate the extent to which its resilience work is made available to those who need it. Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority of Louisiana. Cohen, J. The wildland-urban interface fire problem. Forest History Today Fall Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Climate Change Adaptation Report.
Community Resilience Task Force Recommendations. Donovan, G.
Be careful what you wish for: The legacy of Smokey Bear. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5 2 Accessed March 12, Hazard Mitigation Assistance Unified Guidance. Flynn, S. Brittle infrastructure, community resilience, and national security. TR News July-August Jackson, L.
The Value of Resilience represents one of the first systematic studies of resilience in the field of security studies. At the turn of the twenty-first century, resilience. The Value of Resilience represents one of the first systematic studies of resilience in the field of security studies. At the turn of the twenty-first.
Restoring prairie processes to farmlands. Perennial farming systems that resist flooding. Mutel, ed. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. Knox, J. Floodplain sedimentation in the upper Mississippi Valley: Natural versus human accelerated. Geomorphology Longstaff P. Armstrong, K. Perrin, W. Parker, and M. Building resilient communities: A preliminary framework for assessment.
Homeland Security Affairs 6 3. Maryland Commission on Climate Change. Mutel, C. National Wildfire Coordinating Group. Limiting the Magnitude of Climate Change. Resolution No. Presidential Policy Directive USGS U. Geological Survey. Virginia Natural Resources Leadership Institute. Water Policy Collaborative, University of Maryland,. No person or place is immune from disasters or disaster-related losses. Infectious disease outbreaks, acts of terrorism, social unrest, or financial disasters in addition to natural hazards can all lead to large-scale consequences for the nation and its communities.
Communities and the nation thus face difficult fiscal, social, cultural, and environmental choices about the best ways to ensure basic security and quality of life against hazards, deliberate attacks, and disasters. One way to reduce the impacts of disasters on the nation and its communities is to invest in enhancing resilience--the ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from and more successfully adapt to adverse events.
Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative addresses the broad issue of increasing the nation's resilience to disasters. This book defines "national resilience", describes the state of knowledge about resilience to hazards and disasters, and frames the main issues related to increasing resilience in the United States. Additionally, the book's authoring committee makes recommendations about the necessary approaches to elevate national resilience to disasters in the United States. Enhanced resilience allows better anticipation of disasters and better planning to reduce disaster losses-rather than waiting for an event to occur and paying for it afterward.
Disaster Resilience confronts the topic of how to increase the nation's resilience to disasters through a vision of the characteristics of a resilient nation in the year Increasing disaster resilience is an imperative that requires the collective will of the nation and its communities. Although disasters will continue to occur, actions that move the nation from reactive approaches to disasters to a proactive stance where communities actively engage in enhancing resilience will reduce many of the broad societal and economic burdens that disasters can cause.
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Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released. Get This Book. Visit NAP. Looking for other ways to read this? No thanks. Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative. Page Share Cite. White House and DHS, The Directive calls for the development of a National Preparedness System to guide activities that will enable the nation to achieve the goal of strengthening its security and resilience; for a comprehensive campaign to build and sustain national preparedness; and for an annual National Preparedness Report to measure progress in meeting the goal.
The Directive also recognizes resilience as a characteristic of an individual, community, or nation and that resilience is enhanced through improved preparedness as noted below: The Secretary of Homeland Security shall coordinate a comprehensive campaign to build and sustain national preparedness, including public outreach and community-based and private-sector programs to enhance national resilience, the provision of Federal financial assistance, preparedness efforts by the Federal Government, and national research and development efforts.
We define success as: A secure and resilient Nation with the capabilities required across the whole community to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and recover from the threats and hazards that pose the greatest risk. Using the core capabilities, we achieve the National Preparedness Goal by: — Preventing, avoiding, or stopping a threatened or an actual act of terrorism. Recognizing that each infrastructure sector possesses its own unique characteristics and operating models, there are designated Sector-Specific Agencies, including a.
Department of Agriculture—agriculture, food meat, poultry, egg products ; b. Health and Human Services—public health, health care, and food other than meat, poultry, egg products ; c. Environmental Protection Agency—drinking water and water treatment systems; d. Department of Energy—energy, including the production refining, storage, and distribution of oil and gas, and electric power except for commercial nuclear power facilities; e.
Department of the Treasury—banking and finance; f. Department of the Interior—national monuments and icons; and g. Department of Defense—defense industrial base. In accordance with guidance provided by the Secretary, Sector-Specific Agencies shall: a. Coordination of Executive Branch Federal Agencies In addition to the Executive Branch policies issued through Presidential Directives and Executive Orders, agency policies may be initiated by individual federal agencies through the rulemaking process, and may include such things as management practices for federal lands or other resources, or rules and policies that outline roles and responsibilities of various federal agencies in managing federal assets, including those directing or supporting the activities that foster community resilience.
NOAA, And the USGS states: The USGS brings the results of its many research programs together to create knowledge that is understandable, useable, and accessible in many forms—including statistics, reports, analyses, maps, models, and tools that forecast the consequences of various choices.
The Scorecard includes elements about organization, leadership, partnerships, adaptation, mitigation, and sustainability.
A guide to coastal community resilience outlines coastal hazards, the importance of coastal resilience, and steps for coastal communities to take to become more resilient and to assess progress. NOAA and Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortium: Coastal Resiliency Index: A community self-assessment aims to provide community leaders with straightforward, inexpensive ways to gauge whether their community will return to a satisfactory level of functioning after a disaster; in other words, to allow communities to measure their progress toward becoming disaster resilient. Link 5 National Weather Service: Provides local and regional data and forecasts regarding weather situations e.
Program, Project, or Initiative Web Link Engineering Laboratory Disaster-resilient buildings, infrastructure, and communities: Developing and applying measurement methods, models, and tools to reduce risk and increase resilience of buildings, infrastructure, and communities.
Related areas include earthquake and fire risk reduction for buildings and communities, windstorm impact reduction, and behavior of structures under multihazard situations. Northern Command U. All-hazards approach. Has involved several regional resilience studies of dams and watersheds. District offices with direct responsibility and oversight. Emergency support function assists other federal agencies, particularly DHS and FEMA, and is performed in concert with federal, state, and local governments, contractors, and industries. Supports DHS disaster response framework. Navy The U.
Navy Climate Change Roadmap addresses the national security issues associated with climate change. The roadmap presents the ways in which the U. Navy will observe, predict, and adapt to climate change. CDC provides funding and technical assistance to states to build and strengthen public health capabilities. Ensuring that states can adequately respond to threats will result in sreater health security. The field has growing importance due to the increasing reliance on computer systems in most societies.
The means of computer security include the physical security of systems and security of information held on them. Corporate security refers to the resilience of corporations against espionage , theft, damage, and other threats. The security of corporations has become more complex as reliance on IT systems has increased, and their physical presence has become more highly distributed across several countries, including environments that are, or may rapidly become, hostile to them.
Ecological security, also known as environmental security, refers to the integrity of ecosystems and the biosphere , particularly in relation to their capacity to sustain a diversity of life-forms including human life. The security of ecosystems has attracted greater attention as the impact of ecological damage by humans has grown. Food security refers to the ready supply of, and access to, safe and nutritious food.
Home security normally refers to the security systems used on a property used as a dwelling commonly including doors, locks, alarm systems, lighting, fencing ; and personal security practices such as ensuring doors are locked, alarms activated, windows closed etc. Human security is the name of an emerging paradigm which, in response to traditional emphasis on the right of nation states to protect themselves,  has focused on the primacy of the security of people individuals and communities.
National security refers to the security of a nation state , including its people, economy, and institutions. In practice, state governments rely on a wide range of means, including diplomacy , economic power , and military capabilities. Since it is not possible to know with precision the extent to which something is 'secure' and a measure of vulnerability is unavoidable , perceptions of security vary, often greatly.
Another problem of perception is the common assumption that the mere presence of a security system such as armed forces , or antivirus software implies security. For example, two computer security programs installed on the same device can prevent each other from working properly, while the user assumes that he or she benefits from twice the protection that only one program would afford. Security theater is a critical term for measures that change perceptions of security without necessarily affecting security itself.
For example, visual signs of security protections, such as a home that advertises its alarm system, may deter an intruder , whether or not the system functions properly. Similarly, the increased presence of military personnel on the streets of a city after a terrorist attack may help to reassure the public, whether or not it diminishes the risk of further attacks.
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